Health Care Utilization
These are single items. We have found that we often have to follow up with telephone clarification for these items, no matter how they are written. You will need to figure out how stringent you want to be in your own research. For example, do you want to count an ER visit that resulted in an in-patient admission? Do you want to distinguish between acute and SNF nights in hospital (patients often can't distinguish)? Do you want to clarify whether the physician visits include infusions, allergy shots, dialysis, or diagnostic tests?
Tested on 1128 to 1130 subjects with chronic disease. N=51 for test-retest.
Source of Psychometric Data
Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Study. Psychometrics reported in Lorig K, Stewart A, Ritter P, González V, Laurent D, & Lynch J, Outcome Measures for Health Education and other Health Care Interventions. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications, 1996, pp.24-25
There is no perfect way to get self-reported utilization data - do not try for a time period of more than six months. The article below discusses the validity of these questions. These items available in Spanish.
Ritter PL, Kaymaz H, Stewart A, Sobel DS, Lorig KR, Self-reports of health care utilization compared to provider records. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 2001, 54, pp.136-141.
Lorig K, Stewart A, Ritter P, González V, Laurent D, & Lynch J, Outcome Measures for Health Education and other Health Care Interventions. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications, 1996, pp.24-25
To download this scale and scoring instructions, right click the link below with your mouse and "Save as" to you hard disk or desktop (for Windows), or double click (Mac):